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Phytosterols Content of Foods

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Food NamePhytosterols
Sour dressing, non-butterfat, cultured, filled cream-type15
Milk, filled, fluid, with blend of hydrogenated vegetable oils6
Milk, filled, fluid, with lauric acid oil3
Cream substitute, liquid, with hydrogenated vegetable oil and soy protein13
Cream substitute, liquid, with lauric acid oil and sodium caseinate9
Cream substitute, powdered32
Dessert topping, powdered36
Dessert topping, powdered, 1.5 ounce prepared with 1/2 cup milk0
Dessert topping, pressurized20
Dessert topping, semi solid, frozen23
Sour cream, imitation, cultured18
Milk substitutes, fluid, with lauric acid oil3
Milk, producer, fluid, 3.7% milkfat0
Egg, whole, cooked, fried8
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  • Abbreviations: g = gram, mg = milligram, mcg = microgram, kcal = kilocalorie, kJ = kilojoule.





Phytosterol

Phytosterols, which encompass plant sterols and stanols, are steroid compounds similar to cholesterol which occur in plants. Stanols are saturated sterols, having no double bonds in the sterol ring structure. More than 200 sterols and related compounds have been identified. Free phytosterols extracted from oils are insoluble in water, relatively insoluble in oil, and soluble in alcohols.

Phytosterols are found in all plant foods, with the highest concentrations occurring in vegetable oils. They are absorbed only in trace amounts but inhibit the absorption of intestinal cholesterol including recirculating endogenous biliary cholesterol, a key step in cholesterol elimination.

The lipid-lowering benefit of phytosterols was first reported in the 1950s and is the basis for the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III recommendation for adults to consume 2 g phytosterols daily to reduce LDL cholesterol and cardiovascular disease risk.

Dietary phytosterols

The richest naturally occurring sources of phytosterols are vegetable oils and products made from them. Nuts, which are rich in phytosterols, are often eaten in smaller amounts, but can still significantly contribute to total phytosterol intake. Cereal products, vegetables, fruit and berries, which are not as rich in phytosterols, may also be significant sources of phytosterols due to their higher intakes.

The intake of naturally occurring phytosterols ranges between ~150–450 mg/day depending on eating habits. Specially designed vegetarian experimental diets have been produced yielding upwards of 700 mg/day.

The most commonly occurring phytosterols in the human diet are β-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, which account for about 65%, 30% and 3% of diet contents, respectively. The most common plant stanols in the human diet are sitostanol and campestanol, which combined make up about about 5% of dietary phytosterol.


Phytosterol Food Sources

Table of foods highest in phytosterols, phytosterol content is in mg per 100 grams of food weight:



Phytosterols
Foods Rich in Phytosterols

9060
Margarine-like, vegetable oil spread, approximately 37% fat, unspecified oils, with salt, with added

vitamin D

1190
Oil, rice bran

865
Oil, sesame, salad or cooking

714
Seeds, sesame seeds, whole, dried

553
Oil, wheat germ

534
Seeds, sunflower seed kernels, dried

444
Oil, safflower, salad or cooking, linoleic, (over 70%)

444
Oil, safflower, salad or cooking, high oleic (primary safflower oil of commerce)

410
Margarine, regular, 80% fat, composite, stick, with salt, with added vitamin D

357
Oil, sheanut

347
Salad dressing, mayonnaise, soybean and safflower oil, with salt

324
Oil, cottonseed, salad or cooking

276
Snacks, corn-based, extruded, puffs or twists, cheese-flavor

276
Oil, poppyseed

266
Oil, apricot kernel

266
Oil, almond

250
USDA Commodity Food, oil, vegetable, low saturated fat

250
Oil, industrial, soy, refined, for woks and light frying

250
USDA Commodity Food, oil, vegetable, soybean, refined

244
Spices, sage, ground

221
Oil, olive, salad or cooking

220
Peanuts, all types, raw

216
Salad dressing, mayonnaise, imitation, soybean without cholesterol

214
Nuts, pistachio nuts, raw

210
Margarine, regular, 80% fat, composite, tub, with salt

210
Margarine, regular, 80% fat, composite, tub, with salt, with added vitamin D

207
Oil, peanut, salad or cooking

203
Spices, oregano, dried


Phytosterols
Foods Rich in Phytosterols

201
Oil, cocoa butter

200
Shortening, industrial, soy (partially hydrogenated ) for baking and confections

200
Shortening bread, soybean (hydrogenated) and cottonseed

200
Shortening cake mix, soybean (hydrogenated) and cottonseed (hydrogenated)

200
Shortening industrial, soybean (hydrogenated) and cottonseed

200
Shortening, household, soybean (partially hydrogenated)-cottonseed (partially hydrogenated)

181
Shortening frying (heavy duty), soybean (hydrogenated), linoleic (less than 1%)

181
Snacks, potato chips, plain, salted

180
Oil, grapeseed

176
Salad dressing, french, home recipe

176
Oil, walnut

175
Spices, paprika

167
Margarine-like, vegetable oil spread, 60% fat, stick, with salt, with added vitamin D

163
Spices, thyme, dried

161
Soybeans, mature seeds, raw

158
Nuts, cashew nuts, dry roasted, with salt added

158
Nuts, cashew nuts, dry roasted, without salt added

152
Oil, soybean, salad or cooking, (partially hydrogenated) and cottonseed

152
Oil, industrial, soy (partially hydrogenated) and cottonseed, principal use as a tortilla shortening

150
Snacks, vegetable chips, made from garden vegetables

148
Shortening household soybean (hydrogenated) and palm

146
Margarine, regular, hard, soybean (hydrogenated)

140
Spices, fenugreek seed

139
Nuts, almond butter, plain, without salt added

135
Peas, split, mature seeds, raw

132
Oil, industrial, soy ( partially hydrogenated), all purpose

132
Oil, industrial, soy (partially hydrogenated), principal uses popcorn and flavoring vegetables

132
Oil, industrial, soy (partially hydrogenated ), palm, principal uses icings and fillings

132
Oil, soybean, salad or cooking, (partially hydrogenated)

132
Oil, industrial, soy (partially hydrogenated ) and soy (winterized), pourable clear fry

132
Shortening, industrial, soy (partially hydrogenated), pourable liquid fry shortening


Phytosterols
Foods Rich in Phytosterols

132
Oil, industrial, soy (partially hydrogenated), multiuse for non-dairy butter flavor

130
Nuts, almonds, oil roasted, with salt added

130
Nuts, almonds, oil roasted, without salt added

127
Nuts, almonds, dry roasted, without salt added

127
Nuts, almonds, dry roasted, with salt added

127
Beans, kidney, all types, mature seeds, raw

124
Spices, dill seed

124
Broadbeans (fava beans), mature seeds, raw

120
Oil, hazelnut

118
Spices, mustard seed, ground

116
Nuts, hazelnuts or filberts, blanched

116
Nuts, macadamia nuts, raw

114
Nuts, almonds, blanched

110
Nuts, hazelnuts or filberts, dry roasted, without salt added

108
Nuts, pecans, oil roasted, with salt added

108
Nuts, pecans, oil roasted, without salt added

106
Spices, basil, dried

102
Peanut butter, chunk style, with salt

102
Peanut butter, smooth style, with salt

102
Peanut butter, smooth, vitamin and mineral fortified

102
Peanut butter, smooth style, without salt

102
Cookies, sugar wafers with creme filling, regular

102
Oil, teaseed

102
Peanut butter, chunk style, without salt

100
Oil, tomatoseed

100
Oil, sunflower, linoleic, (approx. 65%)

100
Oil, sunflower, linoleic (less than 60%)

97
Salad dressing, mayonnaise type, regular, with salt

97
Salad dressing, Mayonnaise dressing, diet, no cholesterol

96
Spices, poultry seasoning

95
Egg substitute, liquid or frozen, fat free


Phytosterols
Foods Rich in Phytosterols

95
Oil, industrial, palm kernel (hydrogenated), confection fat, intermediate grade product

95
Oil, cupu assu

95
Oil, industrial, palm kernel (hydrogenated), filling fat

95
Oil, babassu

95
Vegetable oil, palm kernel

95
Oil, ucuhuba butter

95
Oil, industrial, palm kernel (hydrogenated), confection fat, uses similar to 95 degree hard butter

95
Oil, industrial, palm kernel, confection fat, uses similar to high quality cocoa butter

95
Oil, industrial, palm and palm kernel, filling fat (non-hydrogenated)

95
Oil, industrial, palm kernel (hydrogenated) , used for whipped toppings, non-dairy

94
Carrot, dehydrated

92
Spices, pepper, black

87
Spices, onion powder

86
Oil, coconut

86
Oil, industrial, coconut (hydrogenated), used for whipped toppings and coffee whiteners

86
Oil, industrial, coconut, principal uses candy coatings, oil sprays, roasting nuts

86
Oil, industrial, coconut, confection fat, typical basis for ice cream coatings

86
Shortening confectionery, coconut (hydrogenated) and or palm kernel (hydrogenated)

85
Nuts, pecans, dry roasted, without salt added

85
Nuts, pecans, dry roasted, with salt added

83
Spices, ginger, ground

83
Spices, pepper, red or cayenne

83
Spices, chili powder

82
Spices, turmeric, ground

82
Spearmint, dried

81
Spices, tarragon, dried

80
Snacks, trail mix, tropical

76
Spices, caraway seed

76
Beans, adzuki, mature seeds, raw

75
Sandwich spread, with chopped pickle, regular, unspecified oils

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